Sat Aug 06 15:47:55 CST 2022
I believe that everyone is concerned about the needs of cars: car budget, driving comfort, model, appearance, interior, power, space, later costs and retention rate. But people can't think that the modern smart car can bring you a considerable and comfortable experience, but it is inseparable from the electronic PCB board.
1. PCBs are widely used in automobiles, and the scale of the industry continues to increase.
PCB are widely used in automobiles, and automobiles are also an important application area of PCB. As the support of electronic components, PCB are mainly used in power control systems, body sensors, navigation systems, entertainment systems, and navigation systems in traditional automobiles. From the perspective of the PCB industry, automobiles have become the second largest application area of PCB in 2020, accounting for about 16%.
The demand for automotive PCB categories is mainly diversified. The requirements of automobiles for PCB are diversified. Single and double -sided boards, 4-layer boards, 6-layer boards, and 8-16-layer boards account for 26.93%, 25.70%, and 17.37%, respectively, accounting for about 73% in total. HDI PCB , FPC PCB and IC substrates accounted for 9.56%, 14.57%, and 2.38% respectively, accounting for about 27% in total. It can be seen that PCB multilayer boards are still the main demand for automotive electronics. The demand for automotive PCBs is mainly based on 2-6 layers, which accounts for about 2% of the cost of electronic devices in the vehicle.
2. Electrification and intelligence will rapidly increase the value
2.1. The value of the PCB of electric vehicles
Is significantly higher than that of traditional power vehicles. New energy vehicles have evolved from a complete mechanical device in the past to a combination of machinery and electronics. The electronic costs of traditional compact vehicles, mid-to-high-end vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and pure electric vehicles account for 15%, 20%, 47%, and 65% of the entire vehicle, respectively. As the consumption of new energy vehicles begins to change from "policy-driven" to "market-driven", the industry's development has entered a fast lane. In the context of automotive electrification, it is expected that the vehicle electronics rate will increase by 15.2pct to 49.55% in 2020-2030, much higher than the 4.8pct increase in 2010-2020.
The increase in the degree of automotive electronics will drive the demand for PCB accordingly. The PCB consumption of new energy vehicles is 5-8 times that of traditional vehicles. The difference between hybrid and pure electric vehicles is mainly in batteries. In terms of vehicle value, the incremental demand brought by the two is basically the same, and there is no need to distinguish. Whether it is pure electric or hybrid, the increase in PCB demand mainly comes from the electronic control system, and a small part comes from the electric drive and power battery. In traditional cars, the PCB consumption of each ordinary car is 0.6~1 square meters, and the consumption of high-end models is 2-3 square meters. The new energy is based on different design schemes, and the average use area of the car is about 5-8 square meters, which is 5-8 times that of traditional cars.
Electronic control: The increase of electric vehicle PCB mainly comes from the vehicle controller VCU, the microcontroller unit MCU, and the battery management system BMS.
VCU: It is composed of control circuit and algorithm software. It is the control center of the power system. Its function is to monitor the state of the vehicle and implement the power decision of the whole vehicle. The PCB consumption of a single vehicle is about 0.03 square meters.
MCU: It is composed of control circuit and algorithm software. It is an important unit of the electronic control system of new energy vehicles. Its function is to control the operation of the motor according to the decision-making instructions issued by the VCU, so that it can output the required alternating current according to the VCU instructions. The amount of control circuit PCB in the MCU is about 0.15 square meters.
BMS: The core component in the battery unit, through the collection and calculation of parameters such as voltage, current, temperature, and SOC, to control the charging and discharging process of the battery, and realize the protection and comprehensive management of the battery. The BMS hardware consists of a master control (BCU) and a slave control (BMU). BMS requires a large number of PCBs due to its complex architecture .
Electric drive: It is composed of motor, transmission mechanism and converter. PCB is mainly used for inverter and DC/DC device in converter. The motor is mainly responsible for the mutual conversion of electrical energy and mechanical energy; the transmission mechanism transmits the torque and speed output by the motor to the main shaft of the car to drive the car; the converter mainly includes an inverter and a DC/DC device, both of which require the protection of the PCB. Support, greatly increasing the usage of PCB. Due to the high-voltage and high-current power conversion of new energy vehicles , the performance requirements such as Tg and stability are improved.
power battery : The trend of replacing copper wire harness with FPC is clear . The acquisition line is an important part of the BMS system of new energy vehicles, which can monitor the voltage and temperature of new energy power battery cells; connect data acquisition and transmission and bring its own Current protection function; protection of automotive power battery cells, automatic disconnection of abnormal short circuit and other functions. Previously, the new energy vehicle power battery collection line used the traditional copper wire solution, which took up a lot of space and the automation of the pack assembly link was low. Compared with copper wire harnesses, FPC has advantages in safety, light weight, and regular layout due to its high integration, ultra-thin thickness, and ultra-softness.
2.2. Intelligence continues to increase the value of automotive PCBs
Intelligent driving: The demand for millimeter-wave radars is growing rapidly, which is expected to contribute significantly to high-frequency PCBs. Millimeter-wave radar is widely used in the perception layer of autonomous driving and is an important component of autonomous vehicles. The L2 level requires "1 long + 4 short" 5 millimeter-wave radars, and the L3-L5 level requires "2 long + 6 short" 8 millimeter-wave radars. In the future, the number of vehicles per vehicle will increase significantly with the rapid penetration of ADAS. The common feature of PCB design of millimeter-wave radar sensors is that they all need to use ultra-low loss PCB materials, thereby reducing circuit loss and increasing antenna radiation.
Smart cockpit: Electronic systems are the key to human-vehicle interaction. Large-screen, integrated, and intelligent on-board screens increase the demand for PCBs. With the deepening of the integration of Internet technology and automotive technology, automotive displays will bring more and more convenient functions and experiences to drivers and passengers. More and more new technologies such as head-up display, 3D touch, and human-computer interaction are integrated on the display screen to make the driving and entertainment experience of users better. Technology and market demand will stimulate the great development of the automotive display market. According to IHS estimates, in the central control display market in 2020, 9-inch and larger displays accounted for 31%, and it is expected to increase to 43% in 2026. The backlight module in the screen needs to use a large number of PCBs, which promotes the further upward trend of the automotive PCB market.
3. The scale of the automotive PCB board market will rapidly increase The
automotive PCB market will rapidly grow to a scale of 100 billion. With the development of automobiles in the direction of electrification and intelligence, PCBs for automobiles will develop rapidly. Affected by the epidemic, the global auto sales in 2020 will be 78.03 million units, a year-on-year decrease of 13%. In 2021, under the background of the low base of automobile sales and the rising price of upstream raw materials, the scale of the automotive PCB market is expected to grow significantly. We predict that the global automotive PCB market size will exceed 100 billion yuan in 2023, and the CAGR is expected to reach 25.7% from 2020 to 2025. (Report source: Future Think Tank)